Poems (From the Devonshire manuscript. Part IIa.)


If with complaint the pain might be expressed, That inwardly doth cause me sigh and groan, Your hard heart and your cruel breast Should sigh and plain for my unrest; 4 And though it were of stone, Yet should remorse cause it relent and moan. But since it is so far out of measure That with my words I can it not contain, 8 My only trust, my heart's treasure, Alas why do I still endure This restless smart and pain, Since if ye list ye may my woe restrain? 12
If with complaint the paine myght be exprest, That inwardelye dothe cause me sygh and grone, Your harde herte and your cruell brest Shulde sygh and playne for my unreste ; And tho it ware of stone, Yet shulde remorse cause it relent and mone. But sins yt ys so farre out of mesure That with my wordes I can yt not contayne ; My onlye truste, my hertes tresure ! Alas whye doo I still indure This resteles smerte and payne, Sins yf ye list ye maye my woo restraine.


7. it = my pain. 7. out of measure = beyond all reasonable bounds. 12. if ye list = if you desire it.


Since you will needs that I shall sing, Take it in worth such as I have; Plenty of plaint, moan and mourning 3 In deep despair, and deadly pain, Bootless for boot, crying to crave, To crave in vain. 6 Such hammers work within my head That sound nought else into my ears, But fast at board, and wake abed. 9 Such tune the temper to my song To wail my wrong, that I want tears 11 To wail my wrong. Death and despair afore my face My days decays, my grief doth grow; 14 The cause thereof is in this place Whom cruelty doth still restrain For to rejoice, though it be woe 17 To here me plain. A broken lute, untuned strings With such a song may well bear part, 20 That nother pleaseth him that sings, Nor them that hear, but her alone, That with her heart would strain my heart 23 To hear it groan. If it grieve you to hear this same, That you do feel but in my voice, 26 Consider then what pleasant game I do sustain in every part, To cause me sing or to rejoice Within my heart. 30
Sins you will nedes that I shall sing, Take yt in worth such as I have ; Plentye of plaint, mone and morning Yn depe dispaire, and dedly payne, Boteles for boote, crying to crave To crave yn vayne. Suche hammers worke within my hed That sound nought els into my eris, But faste at borde, and wake abed ; Suche tune the temper to my song To wail my wrong, that I want teris To waile my wrong. Deth and dispaire afore my face My dayes dekaes, my grefe doeth gro ; The cause therof is in this place Whom crueltye dothe still restraine For to rejoise, tho yt be wo To here me plaine. A brokin lute, untunid stringes With such a song maye well bere parte, That nother pleasith him that singes, Nor theim that here, but her alone, That with her herte wold straine my herte To here it grone. Yf it greve you to here this same, That you do fele but in my voyse, Considre then what plesaunt game I do sustayne in everye parte, To cause me sing or to rejoyse Within my herte.


2. Take it in worth = accept as worthwhile. 3. plaint = complaints. 5. Bootless for boot = having no success or reward. 5. crying to crave = desperate to express my desire 6. To crave in vain = (only) succeeding in desiring vainly. 9. fast at board, and wake abed = (the hammers in my head) cause me to abstain from food when I am at table, and to stay awake all night. 10. Such tune the temper = such hammers set the mood of my songs. 11. I want tears = I lack tears (because I am so preoccupied with the pain?); (or, I have shed so many tears already on this theme, that I no longer have any to spare?). 15. in this place = (?) in you (who is always on my mind). 16. restrain - Other eds give 'constrain', which seems to be the meaning here. (See strain in 23 below). 21. nother = neither. 23. strain = to bind fast, constrain in bonds (OED 1a). 27. pleasant game = ironic (unpleasant pastime). 28 every part = in all parts of my song (continuing the musical metaphor); in all parts of my life.


What should I say, 1 Since faith is dead And truth away From you is fled. Should I be led 5 With doubleness? Nay, nay, mistress! 7 I promised you, 8 And you promised me, To be as true As I would be. But since I see 12 Your double heart, Farewell my part! 14 Though for to take 15 It is not my mind, But to forsake, [One so unkind]; And as I find 19 So will I trust Farewell, unjust! 21 Can ye say nay 22 But you said, That I all way Should be obeyed? And thus betrayed 26 Ere that I wist Farewell, unkissed. 28
What shulde I saye, Sins faithe is ded, And truth awaye, From you ys fled, Shulde I be led, With doblenesse ? Naye, naye, mistresse ! I promiside you, And you promisid me, To be as true, As I wolde be. But sins I se Your doble herte, Farewell my parte ! Though for to take Yt ys not my minde But to forsake, * * * * * * And as I finde So will I truste Farewell, uniuste ! Can ye say naye ? But you saide That I all waye Shulde be obeide, And thus betraide Or that I wiste Farewell, unkiste.


6. doubleness = deceit. 14. my part = (?) my part in the relationship. 15. Though for to take - Some eds change this to 'thought', and the sense is then 'I do not wish to reflect on the matter, but to act speedily'. However, without the change, something such as 'take revenge', 'take violent action against you' could be implied. (See OED take 5.b.). 23. But you said = but that you said (the following). 24. all way = in everything; always. 25/6. And thus betrayed / Ere that I wist = Can it be that I am thus betrayed before I even knew about it?


Give place all ye that doth rejoice And love's pangs hath clean forgot, Let them draw near and hear my voice Whom love doth force in pains to fret. 4 For all of plaint my song is set, Which long hath served and nought can get. 6 A faithful heart so truly meant Rewarded is full slenderly, A steadfast faith with good intent Is recompensed craftily. 10 Such hap doth hap unhappily, To them that mean but honestly. 12 With humble suit I have assayed To turn her cruel hearted mind, But for reward I am delayed And to my wealth her eyes are blind. 16 Lo thus by chance I am assigned With steadfast love to serve the unkind. 18 What vaileth truth or steadfastness Or still to serve without reproof? What vaileth faith or gentleness Where cruelty doth reign as chief? 22 Alas there is no greater grief, Than for to love and lack relief. 24 Care doth constrain me to complain Of love and her uncertainty, Which granteth nought but great disdain, For loss of all my liberty. 28 Alas this is extremity For love to find such cruelty! 30 For hearty love to find such cruelty Alas it is a careful lot. And for to void so foul a mock There is no way but slip the knot. 34 The gain so cold, the pain so hot, Praise it who list, I like it not. 36
Gyve place all ye that doth rejoyse And loves panges hathe clene forgot, Let them drawe nere and here my voyse Whom love doth force in paynes to ffett ; For all of playnte my song is sett, Wich long hathe served and nought can gett. A faithefull herte so trulye mente Rewardid is full slenderelye, A stedfaste faithe with good entente Ys recompensid craftelye ; Such hap doeth hap unhappelye, To them that mene but honestelye. With humble sute I have assayde To torn her cruell hertid minde, But for rewarde I am delaide And to my welthe her eris are blynde ; Lo thus bye chaunse I ame assignid With stedfast love to serve the unkinde. What vaylith troth or stedfastenesse Or still to serve without repreffe ? What vayleth faith or gentilnesse Where crueltie doeth rayne as chiefe ? Alas ther is no greter greeff, Than for to love and lack releffe. Care doth constraine me to complaine Of love and her uncertaintye, Which graunteth nought but gret disdayne, For losse of all my libretye. Alas this is extremytye For love to finde suche crueltye ! For hertye love to find such crueltie Alas it is a carefull lott ; And for to voide so fowle a mok Ther is no way but slip the knott. The gayne so cold, the payne so hott, Prayse yt who list, I like yt not


6. Which - i.e. his song. Possibly refers to the poet himself. 11. Such hap etc. = such ill fortune comes at an ill time. 19. vaileth = availeth. Of what use? 20. still = always. 31. hearty = heartfelt. 33. void = avoid, get rid of. 33. mock = mockery. 36. Praise it who list = Let those who wish to praise it do so if they please.


Me list no more to sing Of love nor of such thing How sore that it me wring, For what I sung or spake Men did my songs mistake. 5 My songs were too diffuse, They made folk to muse; Therefore, me to excuse, They shall be sung more plain, Neither of joy nor pain. 10 What vaileth then to skip At fruit over the lip, * * * * * * * For fruit withouten taste Doth nought but rot and waste. 15 What vaileth under key To keep treasure alway That never shall see day? If it be not used, It is but abused. 20 What vaileth the flower, To stand still and wither? If no man it savour, It serves only for sight And fadeth towards night. 25 Therefore fear not t'assay To gather ye that may, The flower that this day Is fresher than the next. Mark well, I say, this text. 30 Let not the fruit be lost That is desired most, Delight shall quit the cost; If it be ta'en in time Small labour is to climb. 35 And as for such treasure, That maketh thee the richer, And no deal the poorer, When it is given or lent, Methinks it were well spent. 40 If this be under mist, And not well plainly wist, Understand me who list. For I seek not a bean, I wot what I do mean. 45
Me list no more to sing Of love nor of suche thing How sore that yt me wring ; For what I song or spake Men dede my songis mystake. My songes ware to defuse, Theye made folke to muse ; Therfor, me to excuse, Theye shall be song more plaine, Nothr of joye nor payne, What vailith then to skipp At fructe over the lipp, For frute withouten tast Dothe noght but rott and waste. What vaylith under kaye To kepe treasure alwaye That never shall se daye ? Yf yt be not usid, Yt ys but abusid. What vayleth the flower, To stond still and whithr ; Yf no man yt savour, It servis onlye for sight And fadith towardes night. Therefore fere not tassaye To gadre ye that maye, The flower that this daye Is fresher than the next ; Mark well I saye, this text. Let not the frute be lost That is desirid moste, Delight shall quite the coste ; Yf hit be tane in tyme Small labour is to clyme. And as for such tresure, That makith thee the richer, And no dele the porer, When it is geven or lente Methinkes yt ware well spent. If this be undre miste, And not well playnlye wyste, Undrestonde me who lyste ; For I seke not a bene, I wott what I doo meane.


1. me list = I desire. 3. How sore that it = however sorely it. 4. what = whatever. 11 - 13. Of doubtful meaning. A line appears to be missing. What vaileth = what does it avail, what is the point? The general meaning is perhaps 'Why gaze at fruit over the wall. Why not go and enjoy it?' 14. withouten taste = which is left untasted. 26. t'assay = to make the attempt. 31 - 2. the fruit ... / That is desired most - i.e. sexual pleasure. 33. Delight shall quit the cost = the pleasure you win will outweigh the effort of obtaining it. 35. Small labour etc. = it is but a small effort to attain it. 36-40. Contains various sexual innuendoes. Treasure for example might refer to maidenhood, vagina, semen. See Shakespeare's sonnets 2, 4 & 6 for similar imagery of treasure and spending. 41. under mist = unclear. 42. wist = understood. 44. I seek not a bean = I care not a jot. 45. I wot = I know.


The joy so short alas, the pain so near, The way so long, the departure so smart, The first sight alas I bought too dear, That so suddenly now from hence must part. 4 The body gone, yet remain shall the heart With her, that which for me salt tears did rain, And shall not change till that we meet again. 7 The time doth pass, yet shall not my love; Though I be far, always my heart is near; Though other change, yet will I not remove; Though other care not, yet love I will and fear; 11 Though other hate, yet will I love my dear; Though other will of lightness say adieu Yet will I be found steadfast and true. 14 When other laugh, alas then do I weep, When other sing, then do I wail and cry; When other run, perforced I am to creep; When other dance, in sorrow I do lie; 18 When other joy, for pain wellnear I die; Thus brought from wealth alas to endless pain, That undeserved, causeless to remain. 21
The joye so short alas, the paine so nere, The waye so long, the departure so smart, The furst sight alas I bought to dere, That so sodainelye now from hens must parte. The bodye gone, yet remaine shall the hert With her, that which for me salte teris ded raine, And shall not chaunge till that we mete againe. The tyme doeth passe, yet shall not my love ; Tho I be farre, alwayis my hert is nere ; Tho other chaunge, yet will I not remove ; Tho other care not, yet love I will and fere ; Tho other hate, yet will I love my dere ; Tho other woll of lightnes saye adewe Yet woll I be founde stedefast and trewe. When other laugh, alas then do I wepe, When other sing, then do I waile and crye ; When other runne, perforcyd I am to crepe ; When other daunce, in sorro I do lye ; When other joye, for paine welnere I dye ; Thus brought from welth alas to endles paine, That undeservid, causeles to remayne.


1. near = close (to my heart); intense. 8. Wyatt's declaration of constancy in this stanza is strangely prophetic of Shakespeare's in Sonnet 116. 17. perforced = forced. 19. wellnear = nearly, almost. 21. That undeserved etc. = that is undeserved, (i.e. the pain), and yet will remain with me for no cause.


Pain of all pain the most grievous pain Is to love heartily and cannot be loved again. Love with unkindness is cause of heaviness, Of inward sorrow and sighs painful. Whereas I love is no redress 5 To no manner of pastime, the sprites so dull With privy mournings, and looks rueful; The body all wrisly, the colour pale and wan, More like a ghost than like a living man 9 When Cupido hath enflamed the heart's desires To love there as is disdain, Of guerdon ill, the mind, oblivious, Nothing regarding but love t'attain, 13 Always imagining by what mean or train It may be at rest, thus in a moment Now here, now there, being never content 16 Tossing and turning, when the body would rest, With dreams oppressed and visions fantastical, Sleeping or waking, love is ever pressed, Some time to weep, some time to cry and call, 20 Bewailing his fortune and life bestial; Now in hope of recure, and now in despair. This is a sorry life to live alway in care. 23 Record of Terence in his comedies poetical: In love is jealousy, and enemies many a one, Anger, and debate, with mind sensual, Now war, now peace, musing all alone; 27 Some time all morte and cold as any stone. This causeth unkindness of such as cannot skill Of true love assured with heart and good will. 30 Lucrece the Roman for love of her lord And because perforce she had commit advowtry With Tarquinus, as the story doth record Herself did slay with a knife most piteously 34 Among her nigh friends; because that she So falsely was betrayed, lo this was the guerdon, Whereas true love hath no dominion. 37 To make so fearful of old antiquity What needeth it ? We see by experience: Among lovers it chanceth daily Displeasure and variance for none offence; 41 But if true love might give sentence, That unkindness and disdain should have no place But true heart, for true love, it were a great grace! O Venus, Lady, of Love the goddess Help all true lovers to have love again Banish from thy presence disdain and unkindness, Kindness and pity to thy service retain. 48 For true love, once fixed in the cordial vein Can never be revulsed by no manner of art Until the soul from the body depart. 51
Payne of all payne the most grevous paine Ys to love hartelye and cannot be loved againe. Love with unkindenesse is cause of hevenis Of inward sorro and sighis painefull. Whereas I love is no redresse To no maner of pastime, the sprites so dull With privy morninges, and lokes rufull ; The boddye all wrislye the color pale and wan, More like a gost than like a lyving man When Cupido hath enflamed the hertes desyres To love there as ys disdayne, Of guerdon ill, the mynde oblivyous, Nothing regarding but love tattayne, Alwais imagining by what meane or traine Yt may be at rest, thus in a momente Now here, now there, being never contente. Tossing and torning, when the bodye wold rest, With dreamis opprest and visions fantasticall, Sleping or waking, love is ever preste, Some tyme to wepe, some tyme to crye and call, Bewayling his fortune and lif bestiall ; Now in hope of recure, and now in despaire, This ys a sorye lyf to lyve alwaye in care. Recorde of Terence in his remedis poeticall : Yn love ys Jelosy, and inimis mannye on, Angre, and debate, with mynde sensuall, Now warre now peace, musing all alone ; Some tyme all morte and colde as anye stone. This causith unkyndenesse of suche as cannot skill Of trewe love assurde with herte and good will. Lucrece the Romaine for love of her lorde And byecause perforce she had commit advowtrye With Tarquinus, as the storye doth recorde Herself did slee with a knif most pituoslye Among her nigh frendes ; bye cause that she So falslye was betrayd, lo this was the guerdon, Wheras true love hath no domynyon. To make so ferefull of olde antiquitye What nedeth it ? We see by experience. Among lovers it chaunceth daylye Displeasor and variance for none offens ; But if true love myght gyve sentens, That unkyndenes and disdayne shuld have no place But true harte, for true love, yt ware a gret grace ! O Venus, Ladye, of Love the goddesse Help all true lovers to have love agayne Bannishe from thye presens disdayne and unkyndenesse, Kyndnesse and pytie to thy servise retayne For true love, ons fixed in the cordiale vayne Can never be revoulsid by no maner of arte Unto the sowle from the boddye departe.


2. cannot be loved again = experience the impossibility of being loved in return (again). 5. Whereas = where, in the place that (I set my heart). is no redress = there is no recompense, or return (to old amusements). 7. privy mournings = hidden sorrows. 8. wrisly = shrivelled. 10. Cupido = Cupid. 11. there as is = there where there is. 12. guerdon = reward. Of guerdon ill = giving but poor reward. 23. alway in care = always full of care. 24. Record of Terence = There is the testimony of Terence. He was a Roman author of love comedies c. 185 - 159 B.C. 28. morte = lifeless. 29-30. (?) The behaviour of those who are incapable of true, heartfelt and steadfast love causes unnatural reactions. 31. Lucrece - a figure from Roman pre-history. She was raped by Tarquin and commited suicide to free herself from the shame. 32. advowtry = adultery. 35. nigh = close. 37. Whereas = where. 38. To make so fearful of = to derive such fearful precedents from. 42. might give sentence = might give the authoritative pronouncement. 49. the cordial vein = the artery which carries blood from the heart. 50. revulsed = torn away.


Lament my loss, my labour, and my pain, All ye that hear my woeful plaint and cry; If ever man might once your heart constrain To pity words of right, it should be I, 4 That since the time that youth in me did reign, My pleasant years to bondage did apply. Which as it was I purpose to declare, Whereby my friends hereafter may beware. 8 And if perchance some readers list to muse, - What meaneth me so plainly for to write, My good intent the fault of that shall scuse, Which mean nothing, but truly to endite 12 The craft and care, the grief and long abuse Of lovers' law, and eke her puissant might, Which though that man ofttimes by pains doth know, Little they wot which ways the guiles doth grow! 16 Yet well ye know, that will renew my smart Thus to rehearse the pains that I have past, My hand doth shake, my pen scant doth his part, My body quakes, my wits begin to waste. 20 Twixt heat and cold, in fear I feel my heart Panting for pain, and this, as all aghast I do remain, scant wotting what I write. Pardon me then, kindly, though I indite. 24 And patiently, O reader, I thee pray Take in good part this work as it is meant, And grieve thee not with ought that I shall say, Since with good will this book abroad is sent, 28 To tell men how in youth I did assay What love did mean, and now I it repent, Yet moving me my friends might well beware, And keep them free from all such pain and care. 32
Lament my losse, my labor, and my payne, All ye that here mye wofull playnte and crye ; If ever man myght ons your hert constrayne To pytie wordes of right, yt shuld be I, That sins the tyme that youthe in me ded rayne, My pleasaunte yeres to bondage did aplye, Wiche as yt was I purposed to declare Wherebye my frendes hereafter maye be ware. And if perchaunce some reders list to muse, - What menith me so playnlye for to wright, My good entente the fawte of that shall skuse, Wiche meane nothing, but trulye to endyght The crafte and care, the greef and long abuse Of lovers lawe, and eke for punisshmente mighte, Wiche though that man oft tymes bye paynis doth kno, Lyttle theye wot wiche wayes the gylis doth grow ! Yet well ye kno, that will renne my smart Thus to reherse the paynes that I have past, My hand doth shake, my pen skant doth his parte, My boddye quakes, my wyttis begynne to waste. Twixt heate and colde, in fere I fele my herte Panting for payne, and this, as all agaste I do remayne, skant wotting what I wryght Perdon me then, kyndelye, tho I endite. And patientely, O reader, I the praye Take in good parte this worke as yt ys mente, And greve thee not with ought that I shall saye, Sins with good will this boke abrode ys sente, To tell men howe in youthe I ded assaye What love ded mene, and nowe I yt repente, Yet moving me my frendes might well be ware, And kepe them free from all such payne and care.


11. scuse = exscuse. 12 Which = who. 14. her puissant might = her (love's) mighty power. (I have emended F's reading which seems to have been a mistake). 15. though that man ofttimes = though men frequently. 16. wot = know. The guiles doth grow = how full of deception Love is. 31. moving me - Possibly corrupt. 'Noting ' or 'Musing' have been suggested.


Spite hath no power to make me sad, Nor scornfulness to make me plain, It doth suffice that once I had, And so to leave it is no pain. 4 Let them frown on that least doth gain, Who did rejoice must needs be glad, And though with words thou weenest to reign It doth suffice that once I had. 8 Since that in checks thus overthwart And coyly looks thou dost delight, It doth suffice that mine thou wert, Though change hath put thy faith to flight. 12 Alas, it is a peevish spite To yield thyself and then to part, But since thou seest thy faith so light It doth suffice that mine thou wert. 16 And since thy love doth thus decline, And in thy heart such hate doth grow, It doeth suffice that thou wert mine, And with good will I quit it so. 20 Some time my friend, farewell my foe, Since thou change I am not thine, But for relief of all my woe It doth suffice that thou wert mine. 24 Praying you all that hears this song To judge no wight, nor none to blame. It doth suffice she doth me wrong And that herself doth know the same. 28 And though she change it is no shame, Their kind it is and hath been long; Yet I protest she hath no name, It doth suffice she doth me wrong. 32
Spight hath no power to make me sadde, Nor scornefulnesse to make me playne, Yt doth suffise that ons I had, And so to leve yt is no payne. Let theim frowne on that leste dothe gaine, Who ded rejoyse must nedes be glad, And tho with wordis thou wenist to rayne Yt doth suffise that ons I had. Sins that in chekes thus overthwarte And coylye lookis thou doste delight, Yt doth suffise that myne thou warte, Tho change hath put thye faith to flight. Alas, it is a pevishe spight To yelde thiself and then to parte, But sins thou seiste thie faith so light Yt doeth suffise that myne thou warte. And sins thye love doth thus declyne, And in thye herte suche hate doeth grow, Yt doeth suffise that thou warte myne, And with good will I quite yt so. Some tyme my frend, farewell my foo, Sins thou change I am not thyne, But for relef of all my woo It doeth suffise that thou warte myne. Prayeng you all that heris this song To judge no wight, nor none to blame : Yt dothe suffise she dothe me wrong And that herself doth kno the same And tho' she chaunge it is no shame Theire kinde it is and hathe bene long ; Yet I proteste she hath no name, Yt dothe suffise she doth me wrong.


3. It doth suffice etc. = that which I had in the past was sufficient for me. 5-6. Let those who have not had success keep on frowning. But others who have had cause to rejoice will continue to be happy. 7. weenest = think, expect, suppose (that you will reign). 9. overthwart = perverse, delibeately provocative. 10. coyly = coy. 14. part = depart. 20. I quit it so = I pay you back in kind (?). I leave it (the love we had) (?). 21. Some time my friend = you who were my friend in the past. 26. To judge no wight = not to make a hasty judgement of anyone. nor none to blame = and to blame no one. 30. Their kind it is = It is the nature of womankind. 31. I protest she hath no name = I insist that her name remains hidden.


Ah, my heart, ah! what aileth thee? To set so light my liberty, Making me bond when I was free. 3 Ah, my heart, ah! what aileth thee? When thou were rid from all distress, Void of all pain and pensiveness, To choose again a new mistress. 7 Ah, my heart, ah! what aileth thee? When thou were well, thou could not hold To turn again, that were too bold, Thus to renew my sorrows old. 11 Ah, my heart, ah! what aileth thee? Thou knowest full well that but of late I was turned out of love's gate, And now to guide me to this mate! 15 Ah, my heart, ah! what aileth thee? I hoped full well all had been done, But now my hope is ta'en and won, To my torment to yield so soon. 19 Ah, my heart, ah! what aileth thee?
A ! my herte, a ! what aileth the To sett so light my libertye, Making me bonde when I was fre. A my herte a ! what aileth thee. When thou ware rid from all distresse, Voyde of all paine and pensifnesse, To chose againe a new mistresse. A my herte a ! what aileth thee. When thou ware well, thou could not hold To torne agayne that ware too bolde, Thus to renue my sorowes olde. A my herte a ! what aileth thee. Thou knoist full well that but of late I was tornid out of loves gate, And now to guide me to this mate ! A my herte a ! what aileth thee. I hope full well all had ben done, But now my hope is tane and won, To my torment to yelde so sone. A my herte a ! what aileth thee.


3. Making me bond = turning me into a slave. 9. When thou wert well - i.e. when you were free of love. Thou could not hold / To turn again = you could not restrain yourself from returning to your old ways (?). 10. that were too bold = you being always over bold. 14. turned out of love's gate = rejected by my love. 15. mate = checkmate; new partner. 17. all had been done = all the turmoil of love was over. 18. ta'en and won = conquered and taken prisoner. 19. To my torment etc. = to hand me over to the torments of love so rapidly.